After the death of her husband in 1913, Ellen Booth would have had no choice but to carry on. Not only was the pub her main source of income but, as they lived above the pub, this was the home for her family and also for members of pub staff. Quite a few pubs were run by widows but in some areas the powers that be frowned on women licensees and brewers could not continue the lease with the woman of the family once the husband had died.
Was it the fear that her lease might not be renewed or the fact that she had four children between the ages of two and thirteen that led Ellen to the altar again in 1915? It must have been a great change to have gone from having the same spouse and business partner for 17 years to suddenly having no one. Life was to change again with a new spouse and partner. But an even greater, all encompassing change was already happening as war had been declared in 1914. The Great War and sweeping government powers led to altered circumstances for pubs and publicans.
Monckton, H.A. A History of the English Public House. The Bodley Head Ltd., London, 1969